There are many moves and shouts that Japanese fans use during concerts, and this page is intended to give a brief overview. Before going into specific moves, it's important to understand how a typical Japanese pop song is laid out. It usually consists of the following parts:
There's often some short and relatively quiet segment that builds up into the instrumental. For quieter intros, sometimes fans kecha to this segment.
Here, the vocals haven't started yet, but the instruments are in full force, often with a steady rhythm. For instrumentals with a steady rhythm, fans often shout hai! hai! in sync (well, technically once ever other beat).
The verse often comes a bit more subdued instrumentation, but this is where the vocals start and give an exposition on the ideas contained in the song. Fans will often swing glow sticks down and up casually, while the hardcore wotagei people would be doing OAD at this stage given enough room. In Japan this is often referred to as the A-mero (“A” melody).
Here the song changes direction, both lyrically and instrumental-wise. For a lot of songs, this is where fans do their PPPH, with hardcore wotagei people doing their rosarios if there's room. However, there are songs where PPPH isn't appropriate, especially slower ones like ballads. In Japan this is often referred to as the B-mero (“B” melody).
This is the climax of the song, where the power of the lyrics and instrumentation shine. A lot of fans would be swinging their glow sticks in sync with the beat.
Hardcore wotagei people are hitting people left and right while showing off their moves. In Japan this is referred to as the sabi. When the chorus ends, full length pop songs would often loop back to the instrumental section.
Jumping and shouting “hai!” or “hey!” on the second and fourth beat for every four beats.
This is often done during the instrumental when there's a strong and steady rhythm going. An example can be found in this promo video (of Senbonzakura) for the HATSUNE Appearance Blu-Ray from 00:21 to 00:4 3.
Three claps and an armswing/jump on the third clap, one time every four beats. The first clap is on the first beat, the second clap halfway between the second and third beat and the third clap on the third beat. Then you'd jump up shouting on the fourth beat with your arm up high (technically swinging at the same time, but make sure not to hit anyone).
In Japanese, this stands for “pan pa-pan hyuu!” which is onomatopoeia for what is going on. The clapping is often a lot harder to notice, but the jump and shout is pretty easy to spot, such as in this footage of Mikupa Sapporo 2013's Senbonzakura from 2:28 to 2:40. Often the lead up to the PPPH section will be a chant of “hai! hai! haihaihaihai!”
Hardcore idol fans will sometimes chant their idol's name in sync with the clapp
Slowly raising up forearm/glow sticks repeatedly.
Taking its name from kecak, this move is usually done during quiet/slow segments of songs. Sometimes this is imagined as a way of giving “energy” or support to the singer on stage. For example, you can clearly see the audience doing the kecha at Magical Mirai 2013 for Last Night, Good Night starting at around the 53 second mark.
Wave arms left and right. There are two types: waving slowly (like waving a lighter) for ballads with a strong rhythm, and waving fast like a windshield wiper.
The slower (half-speed) version is used in ballads such as from Y to Y, and the faster version would appear in some songs such as Kokoro. Usually the arm is swung to the left so that the first beat coincides with when the arm is at its left-most, and then it is swung right to coincide with another beat.
A lot of times, for specific songs, the fans will either repeat along with the vocalist parts of a song, or “answer” the singing by shouting out certain phrases. Famous examples of the former are the singing-along during World is Mine (“ohimesama”, “sono ichi”, “sono ni”, “sono san”, etc.) and PoPiPo (“soya soya” “dose dose”). Well-known examples of the latter include the audience chanting back “ohayou-hayou” in *Hello, Planet or the “kekkyoku minasama taningoto” from Musunde Hiraite Rasetsu to Mukuro. In the song-specific pages, these calls will be highlighted in BOLD CAPS if you are singing along, and (in parentheses) if it's an extra shout.
At idol concerts, there's often a “MIX” shouted out during the instrumental leading up to the verse, along the lines of “tiger! fire! cyber! fiber! diver! viber! ja-ja!” At times, specific singers/idols will have their very own version.
A certain red-shirted individual has come up with one for Hatsune Miku, along the lines of “Miku-san! Miku-san! Miku-san! Miku-san! Miku-san! Miku-san! maji tenshi!”.
This started at Mikupa in Taiwan, when they were playing advertisements on the screen before the start of the concert. One of the commercials was for an upcoming Project DIVA game, so when the SEGA logo came up (along with the obligatory audio), the audience started shouting “SEEEGAAA!!!” in sync. This started somewhat in the afternoon showing and picked up steam in the evening showings.